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Hard to crack: molecules need to penetrate into the interior of the viruses to destroy them.

Human papillomavirus
(nonenveloped virus)

Human papillomavirus is a nonenveloped virus in the form of an icosahedral capsid (spherical shape), belonging to the Papillomaviridae family.

HPV causes warts and genital warts. It infects both the skin’s epithelial cells and mucous membranes, and may cause benign, tumorous growths in infected cells. Some HPV types may lead to cervical cancer.


The main transmission path is direct or indirect contact with contaminated persons or objects.

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